Butyl rubber (IIR), also called isobutylene-isoprene rubber, a synthetic rubber produced by copolymerizing isobutylene with small amounts of isoprene. Valued for its chemical inertness, impermeability to gases, and weatherability, butyl rubber is employed in the inner linings of automobile tires and in other specialty applications.
Both isobutylene (C[CH3]2=CH2) and isoprene (CH2=C[CH3]-CH=CH2) are usually obtained by the thermal cracking of natural gas or of the lighter fractions of crude oil. At normal temperature and pressure isobutylene is a gas and isoprene is a volatile liquid. For processing into IIR, isobutylene, refrigerated to very low temperatures (approximately −100 °C [−150 °F]), is diluted with methyl chloride. Low concentrations (1.5 to 4.5 percent) of isoprene are added in the presence of aluminum chloride, which initiates the reaction in which the two compounds copolymerize (i.e., their single-unit molecules link together to form giant, multiple-unit molecules). The polymer repeating units have the following structures:
Because the base polymer, polyisobutylene, is stereoregular (i.e., its pendant groups are arranged in a regular order along the polymer chains) and because the chains crystallize rapidly on stretching, IIR containing only a small amount of isoprene is as strong as natural rubber. In addition, because the copolymer contains few unsaturated groups (represented by the carbon-carbon double bond located in each isoprene repeating unit), IIR is relatively resistant to oxidation—a process by which oxygen in the atmosphere reacts with the double bonds and breaks the polymer chains, thereby degrading the material. Butyl rubber also shows an unusually low rate of molecular motion well above the glass transition temperature (the temperature above which the molecules are no longer frozen in a rigid, glassy state). This lack of motion is reflected in the copolymer’s unusually low permeability to gases as well as in its outstanding resistance to attack by ozone.
The copolymer is recovered from the solvent as a crumb, which can be compounded with fillers and other modifiers and then vulcanized into practical rubber products. Owing to its excellent air retention, butyl rubber is the preferred material for inner tubes in all but the largest sizes. It also plays an important part in the inner liners of tubeless tires. (Because of poor tread durability, all-butyl tires have not proved successful.) IIR is also used for many other automobile components, including window strips, because of its resistance to oxidation. Its resistance to heat has made it indispensable in tire manufacture, where it forms the bladders that retain the steam or hot water used to vulcanize tires